● 2门研究生专业课：<Applied Physical Optics>, <Nanophotonics: Principles and Applications>，全英文授课
● 1门本科生必修课: <Academic English Practice>，全英文授课
Applied Physical Optics
This is a one-semester course for postgraduate students, teaching the knowledge and methodologies regarding the wave nature of light in an advanced level (in comparison with the Physical Optics course for undergraduate students). Topics include the nature of light, the electromagnetic theory of optical waves, light-matter interaction, the propagation (reflection, refraction, and scattering), coherence, interference, diffraction, and polarization of light, as well as the fundamentals of Fourier optics, crystal optics, nonlinear optics, and several selected topics on modern optics (lasers, holography, fiber optics, etc.)
The primary objective of this course is to enable the students to gain a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the concepts, theories, and methodologies of physical optics, to the extent that they are capable of applying the leant knowledge and skills in their research and engineering work. The secondary objective is to train the students to be adaptive to study optics in an international mode, by teaching the course in a complete English environment.
Lectures, homework, self-study of assigned topics, and final exam. The course is taught in English.
Required previous knowledge:
Basics of optics (college physics or optics courses for undergraduate students), basic electromagnetism.
Lecture notes (PPT files) and other supplementary materials available on course website
Optics (4th edition), by A. Ghatak (Tsinghua University Press, 2010)
Optics (4th edition), by E. Hecht (Higher Education Press, 2005)
Principles of Optics (7th edition), by M. Born and E. Wolf (Cambridge, 1999)
Optics: Principles and Applications, by K. K. Sharma (Academic Press, 2006)
Modern Classical Optics, by G. Brooker (Science Press, 2009)
Principles of Physical Optics, by C. A. Bennett (Wiley, 2008)
Optics and Photonics: an Introduction, by F. G. Smith and T. A. King (Wiley, 2000).
Nanophotonics: Principles and Applications
Content of the course:
Nanophotonics has been a rapidly evolving multidisciplinary branch of optics and photonics nowadays, with a wide scope of coverage. This course aims to provide students some fundamental knowledge and methodologies on nanophotonic materials and devices, by focusing on several frontier subfields including plasmonics, metamaterials, subwavelength gratings, and near-field optics. The emphases of the course are on the fundamental principles, applications, and recent developments of the nanophotonic devices. The related numerical modeling methods, nanofabrication techniques, and characterization methods of the nanostructures and fields will also be introduced.
By learning the course, the students are expected to grasp the fundamental knowledge and methodologies that can be applied in their research work with topics related to nanophotonics.
Lectures, homework, lab tour, and final project (report + presentation).
Required previous knowledge:
Basic electromagnetism, physical optics.
Lecture notes + recommended textbooks (can be found in Tsinghua library)
Nanophotonics, Paras N. Prasad (Wiley-Interscience, 2004).
Principles of Nano-Optics, Lukas Novotny and Bert Hecht (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2006).
● Near-field optics:
Near Field Optics, Dieter W. Pohl and Daniel Corjon (Kluwer Academic, 1993).
Near-field Microscopy and Near-field Optics, Daniel Courjon (Inperial College Press, 2003).
Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications, Stefan A. Maier (Springer, 2007).
Surface Plasmons on Smooth and Rough Surfaces and on Gratings, Heinz Raether (Springer, 1988).
Electromagnetic Metamaterials: Physics and Engineering Explorations, Nader Engheta and Richard W Ziolkowski (Wiley-IEEE Press, 2006).
● Subwavelength gratings:
Diffraction Gratings and Applications, E. G. Loewen and E. Popov (Marcel Dekker, 1997).
Lecture 1: Introduction
● Course information & logistics
● Introduction to nanophotonics: understand nanoscale, what is nanophotonics, why nanophotonics, content of this course, nanophotonics examples, nanophotonics applications.
Lecture 2: Light-matter interaction
● Electromagnetic wave: Maxwell’s equations, boundary conditions, constitutive equations, wave equation, time- and spatial-harmonic field.
● Dispersion of materials: what is dispersion, k-ω dispersion relation, phase and group velocities (in k-ω plot).
● Microscopic and macroscopic theories of materials: free and bound electrons, band structures of materials, EM response of insulators (Lorentz model).
● Example of engineering light-matter interaction with nanostructures – form birefringence.
Lecture 3: Metal optics & volume plasmons
● What is plasmon: plasmons (plasma) in universe, plasmons in metal.
● Metal optics: EM response of metals (Drude model), permittivity ε at plasma frequency.
● Volume plasmons: physical nature of volume plasmons, properties of volume plasmons, application of volume plasmons in nanophotonics (inverse wire-grid polarizer).
Lecture 4: Surface plasmon polaritons
● Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs): TM excitation, confined surface wave, dispersion relation of SPPs, plasmon dispersion in full spectrum and of real metals, transverse and longitudinal oscillations of SPPs, SPP wavelength, short-wavelength limit at ωsp, propagation length and loss of SPPs (three characteristic lengths).
● SPPs in multilayer systems: dispersion relation of coupled SPP modes, IMI & MIM heterostructures, odd & even modes (LRSPP & SRSPP), properties of the coupled modes.
Lecture 5: Excitation & characterization of SPPs
● Excitation of SPPs: prism coupling, excitation by highly focused beam, grating coupling, excitation by scattering, near-field excitation, other coupling schemes.
● Characterization of SPPs: near-field microscopy, leakage radiation microscopy, fluorescence imaging, scattered light imaging.
Lecture 6: Localized surface plasmons
● LSPs of metallic nanoparticles: difference of LSPs with SPPs, color effect of metallic nanoparticles, various metallic nanoparticles
● Resonance condition of LSPs: review of dipole radiation, LSPs of nanospheres (quasi-static approximation), Fröhlich condition, size- and shape-dependence of LSPR (Mie theory), LSPs of nanorods (Gans theory)
● Coupling of LSPs between nanoparticles: transverse and longitudinal modes, near-field enhancement in gaps
● LSPs of complex nanostructures: LSPs of nanosphere vs. nanocavity, plasmon hybridization in nanoshells
● Comparison of volume plasmons, SPPs, and LSPs
Lecture 7: Plasmonic circuitry
● Why plasmonic circuitry? – a potential solution for future information technology.
● Components of plasmonic circuitry: SPP waveguides, routing of SPPs (mirrors, splitters, multiplexers & demultiplexers, couplers, filters), SPP sources and launchers, active modulation of SPPs (switches and modulators), amplification of SPPs, detection of SPPs
● Perspectives of plasmonic circuitry.
Lecture 8: Near-field optics (I)
● Fundamentals of near-field optics and near-field optical imaging, principles of the nano-optical detection based on evanescent field, introduction to the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family and some theoretical issues.
Lecture 9: Near-field optics (II)
● Nano-optical detection based on near-field optics: scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM), photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM), total internal reflection fluorescence microscope (TIRFM), etc.
● Applications: high-resolution imaging, characterization of near-field parameters (amplitude, intensity, phase, polarization, etc.) and topography of nanostructures, single molecular fluorescence and localized spectrum, tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS), trapping and manipulation at the molecular level; applications of SPM in characterizing photonic crystals, plasmonic devices, metamaterials, etc.
Lecture 10: Subwavelength resonance gratings
● Introduction: diffraction gratings with d ~ λ, zero-order regime, grating performance
● Optical anomalies in subwavelength grating: Rayleigh anomaly, resonance anomaly, non-resonance anomaly
● Guided-mode resonance (GMR) gratings: geometry of GMR grating, excitation of leaky guided modes, consequences of GMR (far-field & near-field), applications (guided-mode resonance filter, biosensing, enhanced magneto-optic effect)
● Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) gratings: extraordinary transmission (properties & mechanisms), enhanced near-field effects and nonlinearities (sensing, SERS, and enhanced SHG)
Lecture 11: Numerical modeling methods
● Overview of numerical methods for nanophotonics: frequency-domain vs. time-domain, domain- discretization vs. boundary-discretization, periodic vs. aperiodic, near-field vs. far-field, importance of understanding the principles and limitations of different methods
● Finite difference time domain (FDTD) method: principle, capabilities, advantages & disadvantages
● Finite element method (FEM): principle, capabilities, advantages & disadvantages
● Fourier modal method (FMM / RCWA): principle, capabilities, advantages & disadvantages
Lecture 12: Metamaterials
● Fundamentals: definition and characteristics of metamaterials, NIM & chiral metamaterials
● Properties of negative-index metamaterials (NIMs): classification of materials in ε-μ diagram, consequences of simultaneously negative ε and μ (NRI, left-handed wave, backward wave, reversal of physical effects)
● Realization of NIMs: engineering ε (metal nanorod array, form birefringence), engineering μ (split ring resonator, etc.), realization of NIMs, optical SNGs and DNGs, progress of EM metamaterials
● Applications of metamaterials: perfect lens, superlens vs. hyperlens, cloaking (transformation optics)
● Challenges and perspectives of metamaterials
Lecture 13: Chiral metamaterials
● What is chirality: chirality & enantiomers, chirality in one, two, and three dimensions
● Light-matter interaction in chiral media: polarization of light, optical activity (phenomenon & mechanism), circular birefringence, circular dichroism, Kramers-Kronig relations between θ and χ
● Planar chiral metamaterials (PCMs): structure of PCMs, polarization properties, novel polarizing elements
● Planar chiral resonance gratings: all-dielectric chiral GMR gratings, metallic chiral SPR gratings
● Perspectives: 3D chiral metamaterials, chiral route to negative refraction
Lecture 14: Nanofabricaiton
● Overview of nanofabrication techniques: top-down approaches vs. bottom-up approaches
● Nanolithography: general flow chart, film deposition techniques, exposure techniques (laser interference lithography, EBL, immersion lithography), patter transfer techniques (lift-off, dry etching, wet etching)
● Direct milling techniques: focused ion beam (FIB) milling, direct laser writing
● Replication techniques: nanoimprinting
● Final remarks of this course: perspectives of nanophotonics, famous scientists and research groups, Internet resources, international organizations & conferences
Lecture 15: Seminar (final project)
● Each student gives a 15-minute presentation based on their literature report (if the time is not enough, an extracurricular seminar will be arranged)